Early in his reign Henry obtained from Malcolm IV of Scotland homage and the restoration of Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westmorland, and later in the reign (1174) homage was exacted from William the Lion, Malcolm’s brother and successor. His quarrels with Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, and with members of his own family ultimately brought about his defeat. His first task was to crush the unruly elements and restore firm government, using the existing institutions of government, with which the Anglo-Norman monarchy was well provided. On hearing this Henry reportedly exclaimed, 'Will no one rid me of this turbulent priest?' Almost overnight Becket became a saint. The Assize of Clarendon (1166) established procedures of criminal justice, establishing courts and prisons for those awaiting trial. Henry II brought Eleanor out France and into England in July 1174, keeping her imprisoned for the rest of his life. Media in category "Coins of Henry II of England" The following 51 files are in this category, out of 51 total. His territories are often called the Angevin Empire. His career may be considered in three aspects: the defense and enlargement of his dominions, the involvement in two lengthy and disastrous personal quarrels, and his lasting administrative and judicial reforms. Image from. 19,870, and Plate.)  © After receiving a good literary education, part of it in England, Henry became duke of Normandy in 1150 and count of Anjou, Maine, and Touraine on the death of his father, Geoffrey Plantagenet, in 1151. Henry acquired most of the Continental possessions that would expand the kingdom of England before he became king in 1154. He could be a good companion, with ready repartee in a jostling crowd, but he displayed at times an ungovernable temper and could be heartless and ruthless when necessary. Henry’s first comprehensive program was the Assize of Clarendon (1166), in which the procedure of criminal justice was established; 12 “lawful” men of every hundred, and four of every village, acting as a “jury of presentment,” were bound to declare on oath whether any local man was a robber or murderer. Henry II of England Henry II of England. Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets (CSS) if you are able to do so. Henry was the son … tree. Omissions? A second rebellion flared up in 1181 with a quarrel between his sons Henry and Richard over the government of Aquitaine, but young Henry died in 1183. Equally effective were the “possessory assizes.” In the feudal world, especially in times of turmoil, violent ejections and usurpations were common, with consequent vendettas and violence. Cut short cross farthing of Henry II (FindID 707098).jpg 445 × 289; 133 KB Henry now had problems within his own family. Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of … Henry II, king of England (1154–89) who greatly expanded his Anglo-French domains and strengthened the royal administration in England. Henry II was king of England from 1154 to 1189. Kings. King Louis VII of France made him Duke of Normandy in 1150. Henry … He subsequently acquired the Vexin in Normandy by the premature marriage of his son Henry to Louis’s daughter, and during much of his reign he attempted to outfight or outwit the French king, who, for his part, gave shelter and comfort to Henry’s enemy, Thomas Becket, the archbishop of Canterbury. Please select which sections you would like to print: While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. He issued the Constitutions of Clarendon, which restricted ecclesiastical privileges and curbed the power of church courts. Arrest was a local responsibility, usually hard upon a flagrant crime. His quarrels with Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, and with members of his own family (his wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine, and such sons as Richard the Lion-Heart and John Lackland) ultimately brought about his defeat. One was scutage, the commutation of military service for a money payment; the other was the obligation, put on all free men with a property qualification by the Assize of Arms (1181), to possess arms suitable to their station. This page has been archived and is no longer updated. Thibaut du Perche (-bef1211) 3. … BBC © 2014 The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. Author of. Henry II of England (1133-1189)/tree < Henry II of England (1133-1189) Edit. This provided a system of criminal investigation for the whole country, with a reasonable verdict probable because the firm accusation of the jury entailed exile even if the ordeal acquitted the accused. Henry met Rosamund at some point in 1166, and it is thought his publicly favoring Rosamund was an attempt to instigate Eleanor into requesting a divorce. In striking contrast to the checkered pattern of Henry’s wars and schemes, his governance of England displays a careful and successful adaptation of means to a single end—the control of a realm served by the best administration in Europe. A result of this was the celebrated collection of decrees—the Constitutions of Clarendon (1164)—which professed to reassert the ancestral rights of the King over the church in such matters as clerical immunity, appointment of bishops, custody of vacant sees, excommunication, and appeals to Rome. Henry was born at Le Mans in north west France on 4 March 1133. King Henry II: Artist's Impression ca 1620. Henry of Normandy (1155-1183) 2. Using his talented chancellor Thomas Becket, Henry began reorganising the judicial system. Though acknowledging Alexander, he continued throughout the Becket controversy to threaten transference of allegiance to Frederick’s antipope, thus impeding Alexander’s freedom of action. After six months in exile, the pope and king reconciled. King Stephen agreed to accept Henry as his coadjutor and heir. The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. The king's attempt to find an inheritance for John led to opposition from Richard and Philip II of France. 1199. This page is best viewed in an up-to-date web browser with style sheets (CSS) enabled. This writ was returnable; if the sheriff failed to achieve reinstatement, he had to summon the defendant to appear before the King’s justices and himself be present with the writ. Richard joined the protest of the others and was supported by Eleanor. Henry II of England 1154-1189. A doubt of guilt was settled by ordeal by battle; the accused in the shire underwent tests held to reveal God’s judgment. (See Catal. Henry II of England (March 5, 1133 – July 6, 1189) ruled as Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, and as King of England (1154–1189) and at times controlled parts of Wales, Scotland, Ireland, and western France.His sobriquets include "Curt Mantle" (because of his short cloak), "Fitz Empress," and sometimes "The Lion of … Zeitweise beherrschte er Wales, Schottland, das östliche Irland und das westliche Frankreich. His reign was a sharp contrast to the anarchy under Stephen and led to the English Common Law. The first of three Angevin kings of England, he expanded the Anglo-French domains and strengthened the royal administration. The Angevins descend from Geoffrey II, Count of Gâtinais and Ermengarde of Anjou.In 1060 this couple inherited, via cognatic kinship, the county of Anjou from an older line dating from 870 and a noble called Ingelger. Moreover, Henry’s decrees ensured that the judge-and-jury combination would become normal and that the jury would gradually supplant ordeal and battle as being responsible for the verdict. For a wider selection of images connected with Henry II of England, see Category:Henry II of England. Read more. His continental dominions brought him into contact with Louis VII of France, the German emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa), and, for much of the reign, Pope Alexander III. The feudal regime introduced by the Normans added courts of the manor and of the honour (a complex of estates). war Herzog der Normandie und von Aquitanien, Graf von Anjou sowie König von England . Anglo-Saxon England had two courts of justice—that of the hundred, a division of the shire, for petty offenses, and that of the shire, presided over by the sheriff. Four or more generations of descendants of Henry II of England (1133-1189) if they are properly linked: 1. The Archbishop, after an initial compliance, refused to accept these, and they were throughout the controversy a block to an agreement. There was a general revolt of the baronage in England and Normandy, supported by Louis VII in France and William the Lion in Scotland. The next day the King of Scots was taken at Alnwick, and three weeks later Henry had suppressed the rebellion in England. He was already Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou, and became Duke of Aquitaine when he married Eleanor of Aquitaine, the former queen of France. Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), also known as Richard of Bordeaux , was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. Some, indeed, were under the feudal overlordship of the king of France. Those at Westminster dealt with private pleas and cases sent up from the justices on eyre. He was the third of five sons of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine and … In 1184 Richard quarrelled with John, who had been ordered to take Aquitaine off his hands. Henry (1173/1174 – 28 April 1227), named after his father and probably also after his maternal grandfather King Henry II of England; he campaigned with King Henry VI of Germany in Italy in 1190, but deserted in southern Italy and was outlawed at Worms in May 1192 and only restored to favour in January 1194 at Würzburg following his marriage. Henry II Of England was born on March 5, 1133, in England. In the early months of the reign the King, using his energetic and versatile chancellor Becket, beat down the recalcitrant barons and their castles and began to restore order to the country and to the various forms of justice. of England, as Ducbhess of Narbonne, Countess of Toulouse, and Marchioness of Provence, ob. Thomas du Perche (-1217) 4. Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (French language: Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England (1154–89) and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany. Henry was forced to give way. His quarrels with the archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket, and with various family members (including his son, Richard the Lionheart) ultimately brought about his defeat.